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  Services » Publications » Technical reports - by year » tr200648

Managed Retreat from Coastal Hazards: Options for Implementation

 

Report: TR 2006/48
Author: Christopher Turbott, Andrew Stewart

 

Abstract

There are substantial areas of existing development at risk from coastal hazards in the Auckland, Waikato and Bay of Plenty regions.

Communities have two basic alternative choices for management of the hazard. These are to: 

  • adopt a strategy of holding the line of the shore, which involves management of natural coastal processes, or
  • adopt a strategy of retreat from the hazard, which involves managing development.

Holding the line of the shore has been the generally preferred approach over at least the last century. However, it is increasingly questioned because of the high ongoing cost, the adverse effects of protection works on beach systems, and the uncertain feasibility of maintaining protection works over large areas of retreating shoreline in the long-term. Consequently, the second strategy of retreat is receiving increasing attention with an emphasis on a managed process of retreat; i.e. “managed retreat”.

However, managed retreat is not well understood in the New Zealand context. This report characterises managed retreat and reviews the main options available for implementation.

The report found that managed retreat would need to be implemented as a long-term strategy. It may take several generations for it to become accepted as a normal response to coastal hazards. Councils would need to comprehensively integrate managed retreat strategies into long-term urban growth, infrastructure and reserves planning, as well as regulatory planning.

Note: Partial funding and support was provided by: the Auckland Regional Council, Environment Bay of Plenty and the Thames Coromandel District Council

Managed Retreat from Coastal Hazards: Options for Implementation
(1149 kb, 164 seconds to download, 56k modem)

Table of contents

  Foreword 1
  Executive Summary 2
1 Introduction 4
1.1 Objectives 4
2 Managed retreat concepts 4
3 Decision making and management of coastal hazards 6
4 Statutory requirements 6
4.1 Local Government Act 2002 6
4.2 Resource Management Act 1991 7
4.3 New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 8
5 Coastal Hazard Risk 9
5.1 How risk from coastal hazard arises and what is at-risk 9
5.2 The current state of coastal hazard risk 10
5.2.1 Waikato Region 10
5.2.2 Bay of Plenty 10
5.2.3 Auckland Region 11
5.2.4 Tsunami risk 11
5.3 Property values and risk 11
5.3.1 Coastal property values 11
5.3.2 Property values and risk 12
5.4 Insurance and risk spreading 14
5.5 The social, economic and political context 14
5.6 Circumstances where retreat could occur 16
5.7 Historical examples of retreat 16
5.7.1 Mokau Spit, Waitomo 16
5.7.2 Muriwai Beach, Auckland 17
5.7.3 Ohiwa Spit, Bay of Plenty 17
5.7.4 Pourewa Point, Aotea Harbour 18
5.7.5 Te Kopi, Wairarapa 18
5.7.6 Waihi Beach, Bay of Plenty 18
5.7.7 Wainui Beach, Gisborne District 19
5.8 Managed Retreat and Local or Central Government Intervention 19
5.9 Scale of retreat 20
5.9.1 Micro-retreat 20
5.9.2 Relocation within a property 21
5.9.3 Relocation to other sites 21
5.9.4 Large-scale relocation of settlements 21
6 Methods of Implementing Managed Retreat 22
6.1 Provision of Information 22
6.2 Regulation 23
6.2.1 District Plan Rules 23
6.2.2 Regional rules 25
6.2.3 Central Government legislation and regulation. 25
6.2.4 Covenants 26
6.3 Financial instruments 26
6.3.1 Purchase of property 26
6.3.2 Subsidies for relocation 26
6.3.3 Taxation of risk or adverse effects. 26
6.3.4 Pre-paid relocation fund. 26
6.3.5 Transferable development right 28
6.4 Public infrastructure 28
6.4.1 Effect of existing infrastructure on retreat feasibility 28
6.4.2 Shorefront Road with residential development landward of the road 28
6.4.3 Shorefront residential development with road access from the rear 30
6.4.4 Shorefront development with access roads perpendicular to the shore 30
6.4.5 Public reserves 31
6.4.6 Future provision of infrastructure and the location and form of development. 34
7 Options for Managed Retreat 35
7.1 Selecting an option 35
7.2 Option 1: Relocation within existing properties 36
7.2.1 Summary 36
7.2.2 Descriptions 36
7.2.3 What form of intervention is required 37
7.2.4 Who Needs to be involved 37
7.2.5 Risk outcomes 38
7.2.6 Barriers 38
7.2.7 Favourable conditions 39
7.3 Option 2: Change property rights to public ownership 39
7.3.1 Summary 39
7.3.2 Description 40
7.3.3 What form of intervention is required 40
7.3.4 Who needs to be involved 40
7.3.5 Risk outcomes 40
7.3.6 Barriers 41
7.3.7 Favourable conditions 43
7.4 Option 3: Change use rights to a fixed term of use 43
7.4.1 Summary 43
7.4.2 Descriptions 44
7.4.3 Form of intervention required 47
7.4.4 Who needs to be involved 47
7.4.5 Risk outcomes 48
7.4.6 Barriers 49
7.4.7 Favourable conditions 52
8 Staging Retreat 52
8.1 Retreat from episodic erosion events. 53
8.2 Situations with existing protection works 54
8.3 Managing retreat of protection works 55
8.4 Long-term retreat 56
9 Summary 56
9.1 Coastal hazard risk and perceptions 56
9.2 The acceptability of retreat 57
9.3 New Zealand examples 57
9.3 Overseas Examples 57
9.5 Options for implementing retreat 58
9.5.1 Non-regulatory options 58
9.5.2 Regulatory options 59
9.6 Infrastructure and reserves 61
9.7 Long-term implications 61
10 Conclusions and Further Research 62
10.1 Extent of risk and long-term management 62
10.2 Socioeconomic factors 63
10.3 Methods for implementing retreat 64
10.3.1 Information 64
10.3.2 Relocation 64
10.3.3 Regulation 65
10.3.4 Property rights 65
10.4 Compensation issues 67
Appendix I: Shaw Rd Waihi Beach Values 68
Appendix II: Wainui Beach Protection Works 70
Appendix III: Further Evaluation of Relocation 72
Appendix IV: Standard Conditions for Development in the Western Bay of Plenty 77
Appendix V: A Hypothetical Infrastructure and Development Layout to Facilitate Retreat Over Time. 78
Appendix VI: Alternative Relocation Scenarios 83
Appendix VII: Transferable Development Rights 84
  References 88
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