The streams and rivers of the Waikato region are home to 22 types of native fish, as well as freshwater crayfish (koura), shrimps, and invertebrates. Our aquatic plants and animals are under threat from habitat loss and introduced pests.
Over the last hundred years, native fish populations in the Waikato region have decreased dramatically, mainly because of changes to their habitat. One native fish, the grayling, has become extinct.
Many of our native fish travel between freshwater and the sea as part of their life cycle. Structures such as over-hanging culverts and dams can block fish access. Land drainage, flood protection schemes, and introduced pest fish can also affect our native fish.
The table below lists native freshwater fish found in the Waikato region.
Table 1: Native freshwater fish of the Waikato region
|Common name (Maori name)||Scientific name|
|Yellow-eyed mullet (Aua)||Aldrichetta forsteri|
|Shortfin eel (Hao)||Anguilla australis|
|Longfin eel (Kuwharuwharu)||Anguilla dieffenbachii|
|Australian longfin eel||Anguilla reinhardtii|
|Lamprey (Pirahau)||Geotria australis|
|Torrentfish (Papamoko)||Cheimarrichthys fosteri|
|Giant kokopu (Kokopu)||Galaxias argenteus|
|Dwarf galaxias||Galaxias divergens|
|Banded kokopu (Para)||Galaxias fasciatus|
|Short-jawed kokopu||Galaxias postvectis|
|Black mudfish||Neochanna diversus|
|Giant bully||Gobiomorphus gobiodes|
|Upland bully||Gobiomorphus breviceps|
|Common bully (Pako)||Gobiomorphus cotidianus|
|Bluegill bully||Gobiomorphus hubbsi|
|Redfin bully||Gobiomorphus huttoni|
|Cran’s bully||Gobiomorphus basalis|
|Grey mullet||Mugil cephalus|
|Common smelt (Ngaoire)||Retropinna retropinna|
|Black flounder (Patiki)||Rhombosolea retiaria|
There are 14 species of introduced fish found in the Waikato region. Some, such as the sailfin molly and guppy, are originally from the tropics and can only survive in areas of geothermally heated water.
Other introduced species have spread into the region’s rivers, such as rudd, koi carp and catfish, and some are a threat to our native species. The table below lists introduced freshwater fish found in the Waikato region. Find out more about aquatic pests.
Table 2: Introduced freshwater fish found in the Waikato region
|Common name||Scientific name|
|Grass carp||Ctenopharyngodon idella|
|Koi carp||Cyprinus carpio|
|Gambusia or mosquito fish||Gambusia affinis|
|Rainbow trout||Onchorhycchus mykiss|
|Sailfin molly||Poecilia latipinna|
|Brown trout||Salmo trutta|
|Brook char||Salvelinus fontinalis|
Invertebrates are animals without backbones. They include all insects, snails, crustaceans and worms. The larvae of many insects that spend their adult life out of the water, such as mayflies and beetles, start their lives in streams and rivers.
Waikato Regional Council uses the number and type of invertebrate species found in streams to assess stream health, for example:
Nearly half of the Waikato Regional Council monitoring sites in developed catchments are either moderately or severely degraded. These streams are often in:
The aquatic plant communities in rivers and streams are made up of algae, mosses, and submerged plants with leaves. Before European settlement, most waterways were very shady because of the native forest surrounding them and supported a range of native aquatic plant species. Now most of our streams and rivers are in developed catchments and are dominated by introduced plants such as the oxygen weed, Egeria.
These introduced plants can provide instream cover for other plants and animals, but when stream flows are low during summer they can reduce the dissolved oxygen in lowland agricultural streams.
Before European settlement, New Zealand's rivers and streams flowed from the mountains to the coast through native forest and grassland communities. These forests and high altitude grasslands kept our smaller rivers and streams cool and shady. The clearing of this vegetation has made stream temperatures more variable, and less suitable for many of our native aquatic animals and plants.
In addition to habitat loss through land clearance, our aquatic plants and animals have also been affected by other aspects of development including:
Some introduced species become pests that compete with or eat our native fish. Find out more about troublesome fish in the Waikato River.
Waikato Regional Council has been working with the Department of Conservation to stop the spread of aquatic pests such as koi carp.
Find out about the birds, fish and plants that live in our riverine lakes.
Find out about the plants and animals that live in Lake Taupo.
Find out about wetland plants and animals in our region.
Check out our publications about freshwater habitats.