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Multi-elemental analysis of PM10 and apportionment of contributing sources - Tokoroa 2014

TR 2017/29

Report: TR 2017/29

Author: Travis Ancelet and Perry Davy (Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd)

About this report

Understanding the various sources of emissions contributing to the ambient air pollutant PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometres or less in diameter) within an airshed is important in helping to manage the reduction of PM10 concentrations within that airshed.

This report provides evidence, obtained through a source apportionment study undertaken by Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd (GNS), for the main source of PM10 in the Tokoroa airshed during the winter of 2014.

Chemical analyses of PM10 samples collected by Waikato Regional Council (WRC) over the period May to October 2014 in Tokoroa were used along with knowledge of local wind direction and wind speeds and a statistical analysis tool to identify and apportion the sources of PM10 on a particular day. 

The main source identified by GNS was biomass combustion, attributed to solid fuel fires for home heating during the winter. This source accounted for 73 per cent of the PM10 mass on average for the full analysis period and was by far the most dominant contributor and key source responsible for exceedances of the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality. This finding is consistent with the findings of source appointment studies undertaken elsewhere around New Zealand and supports the ongoing management focus by WRC on home heating. 

Read or download the report

Multi-elemental analysis of PM10 and apportionment of contributing sources - Tokoroa 2014 [PDF, 1.6 MB]


  Executive summary
1 Introduction
2 Site description and sampling
3 Pm10 analysis
4 Receptor modelling using PMF
5 Source transport
6 Contributions during peak days
7 Conclusions
8 Recommendations
   Appendix 1: Original letter-based report by GNS