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  Services » Publications » Technical reports - by year » tr201129

Geothermal vegetation of the Waikato region - An update based on 2007 aerial photographs

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Report: TR 2011/29

Author: Wildland Consultants Ltd 2011

Abstract

This study was undertaken for Waikato Regional Council and provides an inventory of the current distribution and extent of geothermal vegetation in the region, and assessment of the relative significance of each site. This information will enable management of the varied characteristics of the geothermal resource, as required by the Waikato Regional Policy Statement. This report collates information from a number of previous reports undertaken by Wildland Consultants for Waikato Regional Council between 2004 and 2007, as well as updated information based on site inspections of selected sites, improved knowledge about sites from other studies, and inspection of better quality aerial photographs (2007 WRAPS) than were present during the 2004 study (which was based on 2002 aerial photographs).

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Geothermal vegetation of the Waikato region - An update based on 2007 aerial photographs (22MB)

Table of contents

  Summary 1 Part one: Pages 1 - 58
1 Introduction 1  
2 Previous work 5  
3 Methodology    
3.1 Existing information 5  
3.2 Ecological districts 5  
3.3 Field survey 5  
3.4 Geophysical properties 6  
3.5 Vegetation and habitat types 7  
3.6 Threats/modification/vulnerability 15  
3.7 Site mapping 15  
3.8 Historical site changes 15  
3.9 Assessment of botanical significance by Given (1996) 15  
3.10 Ecological evaluation 16  
3.11 Data analysis data 16  
3.12 Presentation of results 16  
4. Definition of geothermally influenced vegetation 24  
4.1 Basis of summarising extent of geothermal habitat, geothermal vegetation,
and open water
24  
4.2 Geothermal wetland vegetation 24  
4.3 Nonvegetated raw-soilfield (Source: Merrett & Clarkson 1999) 25  
4.3.1 Basis of mapping of nonvegetated raw-soilfield for this study 26  
5. Geothermal sites in the Waikato region 26  
6. Geothermal vegetation of the Waikato region-  an overview 31  
6.1 Assessment by geothermal field 31  
6.2 Assessment by Local Authority District 42  
6.3 Assessment by Ecological District 42  
7. Changes in extent of geothermal sites between 1940s/1950s AND 2007 43  
8. Changes in extent of geothermal sites (2002 AND 2007 AERIAL PHOTOS) 45  
9. Natural dynamics 53  
10. Human disturbance and associated threats 53  
11. Future management 56  
11.1 Regulatory controls 56  
11.2 Buffers and connections 57  
11.3 Land status and protection 57  
11.4 Ecological restoration 57  
  Acknowledgments 57  
  References and selected bibliography 58  
  Appendices    
1. Site descriptions 72  
1.1 Horohoro Geothermal Field 74  Horohoro
1.2 Waikite Geothermal Field 78  Waikite
1.3 Waiotapu Geothermal Field 103  Waiotapu
1.4 Mokai Geothermal Field 157  Mokai
1.5 Atiamuri Geothermal Field 179  Atiamuri
1.6 Te Kopia Geothermal Field 191  Te Kopia
1.7 Orakeikorako Geothermal Field 232  Orakeikorako
1.8 Ngatamariki Geothermal Field 265  Ngatamariki
1.9 Whangairorohea Geothermal Field 275  Whangairorohea
1.10 Reporoa Geothermal Field 279  Reporoa
1.11 Ohaaki Geothermal Field 313  Ohaaki
1.12 Wairakei-Tauhara Geothermal Field 325  Wairakei-Tauhara
1.13 Rotokawa Geothermal Field 402  Rotokawa
1.14 Tokaanu-Waihi-Hipaua Geothermal Field 414  Tokaanu-Waihi-Hipaua
1.15 Tongariro Geothermal Field 452 Tongariro
2. Sites for which field inspections were made as part of this study 468  Appendices 2 -12
3. Sites for which field inspections were not undertaken as part of this study 470  
4. Notes on the vascular flora of geothermal areas 475  
5. Bioclimatic zones (Source: Leathwick et al. 1995) 482  
6. Habitats for geothermal vegetation (Source: Merrett & Clarkson 1999) 483  
7. Vegetation classes (definitions for those classes used in this report)    
8. Abbreviations and symbols 487  
9. Common plant names used in text 488  
10. Updated Waikato Regional Council criteria for the evaluation of indigenous vegetation and habitats of indigenous fauna 491  
11. Updated Waikato Regional Council criteria for the assessment
of relative ecological significance of Indigenous vegetation and habitats of indigenous fauna
501  
12. Threat classifications system 509  
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