Report: TR 2005/53
Author: Emily Wilton, Environet Ltd
Concentrations of PM10 measured in Hamilton and Te Kuiti have exceeded the national and Environment Waikato ambient air quality guideline for PM10 of 50 µg m-3 (24-hour average). A National Environmental Standard (NES) for PM10 has also been set at 50 µg m-3 (24-hour average) with one allowable exceedence per year. This standard comes into force in September 2005.
In Hamilton PM10 concentrations have exceeded the 50 µg m-3 guideline between 0-4 times per year since monitoring commenced in 1998. The maximum measured PM10 concentration is around 65 µg m-3 (24-hour average). Based on these data, the reduction in PM10 concentrations required to meet the NES is estimated to be around 12 per cent.
Air quality monitoring for PM10 in Te Kuiti has been carried out since January 2003. Concentrations measured during both years gave a maximum PM10 concentration of around 60 µg m-3 and there were five recorded breaches of the 50 µg m-3 guideline. Based on these data, the reduction required to meet the NES for PM10 in Te Kuiti is around 12 per cent.
The main source of PM10 emissions in the urban areas of Hamilton and Te Kuiti is solid fuel burning for domestic home heating. In Hamilton the inventory indicates that domestic heating contributes around 72 per cent of the PM10, with motor vehicles contributing 11 per cent and outdoor burning 13 per cent. In Te Kuiti solid fuel burning is estimated to contribute around 89 per cent of the PM10, with motor vehicles contributing 6 per cent and industry 5 per cent. The inventories do not account for the potential contribution of natural sources such as dusts or industrial emissions from processes such as sanding.
The impact of management options to reduce PM10 concentrations in Hamilton and Te Kuiti is examined in this report for measures targeting domestic heating and outdoor burning. Results suggest that the implementation of the NES design standard for wood burners may be sufficient to achieve the NES in both areas, although additional measures are recommended if a higher degree of certainty is required.
Management Options for Air Quality in Hamilton and Te Kuiti: An Assessment of Management Options to Achieve National Environmental Standards
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|1.1||Air quality guidelines and standards||5|
|2||Air quality in Hamilton and Te Kuiti||6|
|2.1||Reductions required in PM10 concentrations||7|
|3||Sources of PM10 in Hamilton and Te Kuiti||8|
|4||Managing air quality in Hamilton||9|
|4.1||Sources within Hamilton||9|
|5||Managing air quality in Te Kuiti||13|
|5.1||Sources within Te Kuiti||13|
|Appendix A: PM10 emission factors||19|
|Appendix B: Population projections||20|
|Appendix C: Uncertainty analysis||21|