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Hamilton Emission Inventory 2005


Report: TR 2005/52R
Author: Emily Wilton, Environet Ltd


Environment Waikato has monitored air quality in Hamilton since 1997. Contaminants monitored include suspended particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) and intermittent monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), benzene and ozone. Results show concentrations of PM10 in excess of the Ministry for the Environment’s ambient air quality guideline and National Environmental Standard (NES) of 50 µgm-3 (24-hour average) have occurred up to four times per year. Concentrations of other contaminants are within guideline values and the NES.

This inventory evaluates the contribution of different sources to air emissions in Hamilton for 2005. Contaminants evaluated include PM10, CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Sources included in the inventory were domestic heating, motor vehicles, outdoor rubbish burning and industrial and commercial discharges.

Domestic home heating emissions were assessed based on a survey of home heating methods and fuels used in Hamilton during 2005. The survey found that gas was the most common heating method in Hamilton and was used by 64 per cent of households to heat their main living area. Electricity use was also common, with 36 per cent of household using this method in their main living area. Of those households using gas, about half used unflued gas heating.

The main source of daily wintertime PM10 emissions across the whole of Hamilton was found to be domestic home heating, which accounted for around 72 per cent of emissions. The remaining 28 per cent was distributed between motor vehicles (11 per cent), outdoor burning (13 per cent) and industrial emissions (4 per cent). Motor vehicles also accounted for 68 per cent and 76 per cent of the CO and CO2 and 91 per cent of the NOx emissions.

Significant seasonal variations in emissions were found, with motor vehicles and outdoor burning contributing 41 per cent and 38 per cent of the daily summer PM10 emissions respectively. Domestic heating contributed 47 per cent of the annual PM10 emissions, with motor vehicles and outdoor burning each contributing 22-23 per cent of emissions.

In the central (CBD) area, motor vehicles contributed as much PM10 as domestic heating (both around 45 per cent), whereas in the Melville (hospital) area, industry was the second most dominant source contributing 26 per cent of the daily winter PM10.

Note: This report was originally published in June 2005. This new edition corrects a minor data error which appeared in Table 3.2 of the original report. While addressing this error, the opportunity was taken to make some minor changes to data, based on updated methodology that has been developed since the original report was published - but makes no difference to the interpretation or conclusions.

Hamilton Emission Inventory 2005
(464 kb, 66 seconds to download, 56k modem)

Table of Contents

Executive summary v
1 Introduction 1
2 Inventory design 1
2.1 Selection of sources 1
2.2 Selection of contaminants 2
2.3 Selection of study areas 2
2.4 Temporal distribution 4
3 Domestic home heating 4
3.1 Methodology 4
3.2 Home heating methods 6
3.3 Emissions from domestic heating 10
3.3.1 Hamilton - total 10
3.3.2 Hamilton emissions by study area 10
3.3.3 Daily variations in domestic heating emissions by study area 22
4 Motor vehicles 24
4.1 Methodology 24
4.1.1 Emission factors 24
4.1.2 Vehicle kilometres travelled 25
4.2 Motor vehicle emissions 26
5 Industrial and commercial 30
5.1 Methodology 30
5.2 Industrial and commercial emissions 30
6 Outdoor burning 34
6.1 Methodology 34
6.2 Emissions from outdoor burning 34
7 Total emissions 35
7.1 Hamilton 35
7.2 Total emissions by study area 40
8 Conclusion 51
References 52
Appendix One: Home heating questionnaire 53
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