Waikato region shallow lakes management plan: Volume 2
Report: TR 2014/59
Author: T Dean-Speirs & K Neilson et al
Seventy one (71) lakes in the Waikato region are classed as ‘shallow lakes’, in that they have a maximum depth of less than 10m. More than half of these are less than 5m deep.
These lakes provide for a range of values - as habitat for native flora and fauna including taonga and game species, and also for water supply, flood control, commercial and traditional fisheries, and recreation. Shallow lakes also perform nutrient cycling and other ecosystem processes that contribute to the life supporting capacity of the wider environment.
Shallow lakes function differently to deep lakes in that their depth provides for them to be:
- capable of supporting submerged aquatic plants over most of the lake bed as their shallow depths allow sufficient light penetration for plant growth;
- regularly stirred up by wind and wave action which prevents long periods of thermal stratification and serves to recycle nutrients from the bottom sediments. The large interface between the lake bed and water column acts to amplify the influence of lake bed sediments
- very susceptible to changes in hydrology due to catchment land use; and
- more heavily impacted by invasive species.
As a result of these features, they are particularly vulnerable to deterioration, and require a specific management approach.
This Shallow Lakes Management Plan draws together information about the shallow lakes of the Waikato region, the policy framework for their management, and the associated management challenges and opportunities.
Volume I identifies objectives and high level management actions to address the key management issues for the lakes, with a specific focus on matters that WRC has responsibility for (i.e. water quality, lake water levels and biodiversity values).
Volume 2 is a complementary resource statement that summarises available information and knowledge for shallow lakes in the Waikato region and proposes key management actions for individual shallow lakes at a greater level of detail.
This plan has a term of 10 years, and will be reviewed after 3 years (in 2018).
|1.1||Shallow lake information|
|2||Condition of shallow lakes|
|2.1||Lake water quality|
|2.1.2||Water quality trends|
|2.2||Shallow lake health indicators|
|2.2.2||Submerged aquatic plant indicators (Lake SPI)|
|2.3||Restoration and management|
|2.3.1||Lake level setting|
|2.3.2||Riparian retirement and fencing|
|2.3.3||Enhancement of marginal habitat|
|2.3.4||Pest fish control|
|2.3.5||Reduction of nutirent and sediment inputs|
|2.3.6||Access to lakes|
|3||Waikato peat lakes|
|3.1.1||Lake Rotokaeo (Forest Lake)|
|3.1.2||Lake Rotoroa (Hamilton Lake)|
|3.1.3||Lake Waikwhakareke (Horseshoe Lake)|
|3.2.1||Kopuatai Burn Pools|
|3.4||South Waikato district|
|3.5.3||Lake Kainui (Lake D)|
|3.5.4||Lake Kaituna (Lake B)|
|3.5.5||Lake Komakorau (Lake C)|
|3.5.10||Lake Te Kapa|
|3.5.11||Lake Tunawhakaheke (Lake E/Tunawhakapeko/Hurrell'sLake)|
|3.5.13||Lake Whakatangi (Lake A)|
|3.6.1||Lake Cameron (Lake Kareaotahi)|
|3.6.11||Lake Posa (Lake Pataka South)|
|3.6.12||Lake Rotomanuka (north and south)|
|3.7.1||Lake Rotokotuku (Kotukutuku)|
|4||Waikato riverine lakes|
|4.2.3||Lake Kopuera (Rangiriri)|
|4.2.6||Lake Penewaka (Penewaka Lagoon)|
|4.2.9||Te Otamanui Lagoon|
|4.2.13||Lake Opuatia (Unnamed 9)|
|4.3.1||Lake Te Koutu (also Te Ko Utu)|
|5||Waikato dune lakes|
|5.1.2||Lake Te Rotopupu|
|5.2.2||Lake Parkinson (Kohahuake)|
|5.2.4||Lake Rotoiti (Little Lake)|
|5.2.5||Lake Unnamed 3|
|5.3.4||The Taharoa lakes - Taharoa, Numiti and Rotoroa|
|6||Waikato karst lakes|
|7||Waikato volcanic lakes|