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5 Land and Soil Module

5.3 Contaminated Land*

5.3.6 Monitoring Options

Objective Indicators/Measurements Types of Monitoring Information Source
Discharges of contaminants from existing contaminated sites do not present a significant risk of chronic or acute toxic effects on human health due to the contamination of soil, ground water or surface water. Number of contaminated sites recorded as under investigation, confirmed or remediated.
Number of contaminated sites remediated to levels set by guidelines or risk assessments.
Compliance and effects monitoring. Database of Selected Land Use Sites and Register of Confirmed Contamination Sites.
Resource consents database.
Territorial authority files.
Discharges of contaminants from contaminated land do not have adverse effects on water quality or aquatic ecosystems that are inconsistent with the water management objectives in Section 3.1.2. The effects of discharges to water from contaminated sites on the indicators provided in Section 3.2.7. See Section 3.2.7. See Section 3.2.7.
There are no adverse effects on air quality that are inconsistent with air management objectives in Section 6.1.2. The effects of discharges to air from contaminated sites on the indicators provided in Section 6.1.2.2. See Section 6.1.7. See Section 6.1.7.
Discharges of contaminants from contaminated land avoid significant adverse effects on the relationship that tangata whenua as Kaitiaki have with their identified taonga such as ancestral lands, water and waahi tapu. The number of contaminated sites on waahi tapu sites. Compliance and effects monitoring.
Community monitoring.
Resource consents database.
Iwi/Maori databases.
Remedies or mitigates cumulative adverse effects on the relationship that tangata whenua as Kaitiaki have with their identified taonga such as ancestral lands, water and waahi tapu. The number of contaminated sites on waahi tapu sites. Compliance and effects monitoring.
Community monitoring.
Resource consents database.
Iwi/Maori databases.


Fig 5.2

Figure 5.2 Implementation Flow Chart for Contaminated Land



Table 5.1 Prioritisation of Land Uses

(a) High Priority

Land Uses Rationale for Priority Status
Gas Works Considerable amounts of hazardous waste generated.
Waste material generally left on site.
Abandoned sites with uncontrolled access.
Little control of off-site transport of waste.
Sites commonly situated in sensitive areas.
Major contamination problems are known to exist.
Landfill sites and uncontrolled waste dumps that received waste from industrial or trade premises Uncontrolled dumping – unknown content.
Mobility of contaminants – leachate, gas generation.
Inappropriate siting.
Very wide range of potential contaminants.
Uncontrolled leachate or stormwater runoff.
Many sites abandoned without controls.
Potential release of persistent, bioaccumulative toxins.
Sites with the potential for generating acid drainage (e.g. earthworks or mineral extraction in sulphide bearing rock masses) Mobility of contaminants, potential to generate acid drainage.
Abandoned sites without controls.
Oil production and storage Large volumes of hazardous material on site.
High mobility of some contaminants
Minor leaks and spills common – build up of persistent components.
Scrap yards Wide variety of hazardous material potentially present.
Hazardous substances may be unknown/unrecognised.
Potential release of persistent, bioaccumulative toxins.
Operate with few environmental considerations.
Often little or no control of runoff.
Often sited in sensitive areas.
Service stations Large volumes of mobile, hazardous substances.
Storage practices known to pose threat to ground water.
Minor leaks and spills often undetected.
Often sited in sensitive areas.
Large number of sites in Region.
Wood preservation (including treated timber storage sites) Major industry in Region.
Past practices known to have led to site contamination.
Several serious cases of site contamination known.
Potential source of highly toxic and bioaccumulative contaminants such as dioxin.
Some sites abandoned with no controls.
Many sited in sensitive areas.


(b) Medium Priority

Land Use Rationale for Priority Status
Acid/alkali plant and formulation Potential for serious contamination but only minor land use in the Region.
Asbestos production and disposal Serious health issue, but production very limited in the Region. More information on disposal sites and practices required.
Chemicals manufacture and formulation Wide variety of potential contaminants, but only minor land use in the Region. More information required.
Clay target shoot ranges Some work has identified serious lead contamination of soil at these sites and on neighbouring properties. This may also pose a threat to water quality near the range. Information is limited.
Defence works Little information available on scale and nature in the Region.
Drum reconditioning works Potential problems, especially if poorly managed. Very few sites in the Region. More information required.
Electrical manufacturing (transformers) Major problem chemicals (e.g. PCB) no longer used and existing inventory being dealt with by collection programme. Some historical contamination may remain but very little information available on scale of practice in the Region. Investigation of sites is required to ascertain whether PCB contamination is present – if so, site will become high priority, if not, low priority.
Electroplating and metal treatment premises Potential problems of unknown scale. More information on number and range of premises required.
Engine works Potential problems of unknown scale. More information required.
Pesticide manufacture and formulation Potential contaminants are well defined and operations generally well managed. Some historical problems may exist. This activity has not occurred extensively in the Region.
Power stations Some problems recognised and need for action already acknowledged. Historical use of PCB-based transformer oils in power stations and related sites (e.g. substations, switchyards) of concern.
Railway yards Little information available on the scale of contamination associated with this industry.
Tanning and associated trades Potential for contamination with substances such as chromium and metal sulphides if poorly managed. More information required.
Waste storage and treatment Wide variety of potential contaminants. Considerable potential for contamination if poorly managed. More information required.


(c) Low Priority

Land Use Rationale for Priority Status
Aggregate extraction Limited potential for contamination.
Agricultural/horticultural activities Industry codes of practice should minimise risks.
Environmental education most appropriate, given the size and scale of operations.
Airports Minor land use in the Region.
Relatively low potential for contamination.
Cemetaries Some potential for contamination from heavy metals, but land use means that little risk would normally exist.
Dry-cleaning establishments Typically only small scale operation in New Zealand.
Limited contamination potential.
Explosives industry Minor land use in Region.
Relatively low potential for contamination.
Iron and steel works Few in Region. Limited contamination potential.
Paint formulation and manufacture Minor land use in the Region.
Relatively low potential for contamination.
Pharmaceuticals manufacture and formulation Minor land use in the Region.
Relatively low potential for contamination.
Sheep and cattle dips Typically small scale of operation. Contamination with arsenic and organochlorine agrichemicals is possible, but likely to be very localised.
Environmental education most appropriate.
Smelting and refining None in Region.



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